Quality Management & Training

Quality Management - Principles of Quality & Data Analysis

By: Fred Tickle BA Ceng MIMech E MIEE MCQI and Geoff Vorley MSc MCQI

The first edition of this book filled a gap that existed in quality assurance literature. The book was, still is, unique in providing such a broad coverage of the foundations of quality control and quality assurance. It is used extensively in universities and colleges nationally and internationally

This third edition has been completely updated and certain sections have been expanded to provide more detailed and comprehensive information. The aim is to provide an inclusive understanding of the fundamental concepts and technical bases of quality assurance. It brings the subject alive and explains its relevance for today’s advanced technology and competitive markets. As a result, the reader’s awareness and knowledge of quality assurance will be promoted.

This book is part of the Quality Management series of books which includes:

  • Quality Management – Introduction to Quality
  • Quality Management – Principles and Practice
  • Quality Management – Tools and Techniques
  • Quality Management – Communication and Project Management
  • Quality Management – Information Technology

These books together form a complete series to support the CQI Diploma in Quality, thus ensuring they comprehensively cover all the very latest information associated with Quality Management.

Subjects covered in this book include:

  • Quality Concepts, Philosophy and Systems
  • Standardising Organisations
  • Total Involvement in Quality
  • Quality Costs including the various analysis models
  • Statistical Process Control
  • Reliability
  • Variability


Geoff Vorley and Fred Tickle are both associate lecturers in Quality at Surrey University and founding directors of Quality Management and Training Limited. Their knowledge of the subject extends over many years, providing consultancy and training in QA.

Quality Management and Training provides; consultancy, training, distance learning and many other QA products in Quality and Health and Safety Management to large numbers of organisations and individuals.


  • ISBN 1 904302 00 9
  • Pages: 350
  • Diagrams & Pictures: 122
  • Tables: 40

Contents List

Part 1

Quality Concepts, Philosophy and Systems
The Quality Concept
Quality Control
Quality Assurance
Quality Policy and the Documented Quality System
The Quality Hierarchy
Natural, Material and Subjective Standards and Specifications
Definitions – General
British Standards Definitions
Product Specifications
Material Specifications
Specification Writing
Principles of Measurement
Basic Standards of Measurements
The International System of Units (SI)
Angular Measurement
Calibration Concepts Techniques and Systems
Specifications, Measurements and Process Capability
Inspection and Testing Methodology
Inspection Techniques
Inspection Planning
Types of Inspection
Quality Control Strategy

Part 2

Standardising Organisations
Company, Industrial and National Standards
Approval and Certification Schemes
Certification Schemes for Quality Systems
ISO 9000
Defence Standards (Def Stan’s) and AQAPs
Product Standards and Certification

Part 3

Total Involvement in Quality
Justification of Quality Assurance Activities
Supplier Evaluation
Methods of Controlling Suppliers
Sub-contractor Quality Assurance

Part 4

Quality Costs
Prevention, Appraisal and Failure Model (PAF Model)
Process Quality Costs Model
Loss Function – Genichi Taguchi
Profit/Cost Model

Part 5

Statistical Process Control
Process Capability Studies
Specification, Measurement and Process Capability
Statistical Process Control
Variable Charts
Attribute Charts
Control Charts and Decision Lines
Implementing Statistical Quality Control
Variable Charts and Data
Attribute Charts and Data

Part 6

Basic Concepts
Patterns of Failure
Reliability Prediction
Introduction to Basic Probability Theory
Serial and Parallel (Systems) Reliability
Reliability Improvement
Total Life Cycle Costing
Practical Testing – burn-in phase
Reliability Testing
Prototype Testing
Configuration Control
Reliability Programme Management

Part 7

Discrete and Continuous Variables
Probability Distribution Patterns
The Normal, Binomial and Poisson Distributions
The Normal Distribution
The Binomial Distribution
The Poisson Distribution
Statistical Tolerancing
Operating Characteristic Curves
Cusum Charts

Extracts from the book

The aim of this book is to provide a clear and comprehensive understanding of the principles of quality assurance. The book will explain the way in which these quality assurance principles relate and can be applied to the design, development, manufacture and delivery of products and services. The object is to enhance the reader’s awareness of Quality Assurance, its terminology and bring the subject alive sufficiently to encourage and motivate for quality assurance. Since statistical methods play a vital part in any Quality Assurance or Total Quality Management initiatives, it is for this reason a practical approach has been adopted in the explanation of this important topic. Information is provided by practical examples of the application of statistics in the quality environment.

Introduction to Quality is part of the Quality Management series of books which includes: Quality Management (Principles and Practice), Quality Management (Tools & Techniques), Quality Management (Communications and Projects) and Quality Management (Information Technology). For clarity and continuity purposes, there is correctly some overlap between these titles. However, this book is expected to be a “stand alone”, comprehensive and practical reference to introduction to quality.

The book is divided into seven parts. Below is an outline of the contents of each section and what could be reasonably expected to be appreciated, having studied each section.

Part 1: Quality Concepts, Philosophy and Systems

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • understand the concepts of quality, its control and various definitions associated with quality and reliability,
  • establish and interpret company quality policy,
  • understand natural, material and subjective standards and their applicability,
  • develop and create a calibration system,
  • understand the concepts of traceability and hierarchy in connection with inspection and testing measuring equipment,
  • understand the relationship between specifications, measurements and process capabilities,
  • understand various quality control strategies applicable to different organisational structures and processes; volume, flow, batch, service, etc.
  • prepare quality control schemes and their documentation,
  • control specification amendment and implement a concession procedure.

Part 2: Standardising Organisations

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • describe the roles and responsibilities of the various standardising organisations (company, industrial, national and international) and the importance of international standards harmonisation,
  • understand and complete the process or procedure for obtaining product certification including a third party,
  • describe the need, importance and application of specifications and standardisation in the quality control system,
  • prepare specifications for the purposes of testing a product or service,
  • use a product or service specification as a basis for a contract or conducting an external audit,
  • determine from the product or service specification the process measurement criteria.

Part 3: Total Involvement Quality

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • understand the concept of total involvement in quality assurance and importance of communication and feedback of information,
  • justify quality assurance activities with regard to commercial, legal responsibilities and cost reduction,
  • control the process of procuring bought-in goods and services,
  • complete a supplier evaluation and vendor rating,
  • organise and document purchasing and sub-contracting procedures,
  • understand how suppliers’ performance is measured.

Part 4: Quality Costs

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • explain how the quality department can make a major contribution to the profitability of an organisation,
  • complete a quality cost analysis using the
    • prevention, appraisal and failure costs model
    • process cost model
    • loss function.

Part 5: Statistical Process Control

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • use process capability analysis to determine the ability of the process to meet the quality requirements,
  • understand the basic ideas of control charts and compile control charts for variables and attributes,
  • calculate and use decision lines on control charts.
  • use and application of control charts both variable and attribute.

Part 6: Reliability

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • be able to define reliability, with specific regard to ISO 8402/BS 4778,
  • interpret lifetime distributions in terms of probability density function and reliability function,
  • understand the basic concepts of simple series and parallel systems and the use of redundancy to improve reliability,
  • understand the principles of reliability testing and reliability programme management.

Part 7: Variability

This section is intended to provide sufficient information to:

  • determine the ability of the process to meet specification,
  • understand the concept of variability when applied to continuous and discrete random variables,
  • calculate normal, binomial and poisson distributions,
  • apply acceptance sampling by attributes,
  • construct operating characteristics curves for single sampling plans,
  • interpret the implications of an operating characteristic curve and determine the risks involved in sampling,
  • construct probability distributions for continuous random variables.
  • understand the properties of the normal distribution and explain the reasons for its widespread use to model production and service processes,
  • understand how to complete an analysis of tolerance requirements and a statistical analysis of tolerancing,
  • understand, calculate and apply cusum charts.


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